Accommodation

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Accommodation is the ability of the healthy eye to focus on both near and far objects. The relaxed state of the ciliary muscle is distance vision, and the flexed state is near vision.

Presbyopia

As you age, the lens in your eye becomes less flexible. This makes accommodation more difficult and brings on "arms are not long enough to read" symptoms. Someone may be both myopic and presbyopic, and have deficits in both near and far vision. Your Prescription will have an "Add" section specifying bifocals or multifocals if you have diagnosed presbyopia, or if your doctor thinks it best to reduce eye strain.

Bifocals

Glasses with a lower section that is specifically for close work.

Multifocals

Contacts that have sections for near and far work, which the visual cortex will selectively use when looking at different distances.

References