It has been show in in studies that hyperopic defocus causes myopia.
Proteomic analysis of chick retina during early recovery from lens‑induced myopia - Yun Yun Zhou et al. - May 3, 2018 https://www.spandidos-publications.com/mmr/18/1/59?text=fulltext
It has been shown in studies that myopic defocus is protective against myopia progression.
Long -term effects of optical defocus on eye growth and refractogenesis Elena Tarutta et al Pomeranian J Life Sci 2016;62(1):25-30 https://www.pum.edu.pl/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/112849/PomeranianJLifeSci_62-01_025-030.pdf
A core tenant of EM is that doing near work in lenses designed for distance work causes myopia progression. Even if hyperopic blur is not induced by the lenses, the accommodation system is being constantly stressed and this encourages eye axial lengthening. This is supported by the fact that both bifocals and multifocals, which allow the eye to use less accommodation to do near work, are protective against myopia progression Template:Fix/category
Near Work Induced Myopia
It is arguable if near work induced myopia is the same mechanism as lens induced myopia. Both are cases where you are doing work closer than your corrected vision is designed to do, but obviously near work induced myopia can happen before the first pair of glasses, and the term is more heavily associated with Pseudomyopia.