Lens-induced myopia

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Lens-induced myopia is the generally accepted observation [1] (by researchers, if not the mainstream optometry industry - citation needed) that wearing corrective lenses seems to somehow cause myopia to worsen. Typically when someone wears distance vision glasses for close-up use.

The actual mechanism is still an area of active research, but the underlying cause appears to be axial elongation[2].

One of several hypotheses is that it is result of hyperopic defocus.[3]

It has been shown in studies that myopic defocus is protective against myopia progression.[4]

A core tenant of EM is that doing near work in lenses designed for distance work causes myopia progression. Even if hyperopic blur is not induced by the lenses, the accommodation system is being constantly stressed and this encourages eye axial elongation.[5][6]This is supported by the fact that both bifocals and multifocals, which allow the eye to use less accommodation to do near work, are protective against myopia progression [7][8][9][10]

Near Work Induced Myopia

This term is more heavily associated with Pseudomyopia. Many optometrists recommend the 20-20-20 rule to prevent eye strain,[11][12] which may be the mechanism behind myopia progression.

It is arguable if near work induced myopia is the same mechanism as lens induced myopia. Both are cases where you are doing work closer than 20/20 eyesight finds comfortable, whether that acuity is "natural" (before your first pair of glasses) or with-correction.

References

  1. Google Scholar list of Lens Induced Myopia studies
  2. McBrien NA, Adams DW (1997). "A longitudinal investigation of adult-onset and adult-progression of myopia in an occupational group. Refractive and biometric findings". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38 (2): 321–33. PMID 9040464.
  3. Zhou, Yun Yun; Chun, Rachel Ka Man; Wang, Jian Chao; Zuo, Bing; Li, King Kit; Lam, Thomas Chuen; Liu, Quan; To, Chi-Ho (2018-05-03). "Proteomic analysis of chick retina during early recovery from lens‑induced myopia". Molecular Medicine Reports. 18 (1): 59–66. doi:10.3892/mmr.2018.8954. ISSN 1791-2997.
  4. Tarutta, Elena (2016). "Long -term effects of optical defocus on eye growth and refractogenesis" (PDF). Pomeranian J Life Sci. 62(1): 25–30.
  5. Read SA, Collins MJ, Woodman EC, Cheong SH (2010). "Axial length changes during accommodation in myopes and emmetropes". Optom Vis Sci. 87 (9): 656–62. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181e87dd3. PMID 20562668.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. Mallen EA, Kashyap P, Hampson KM (2006). "Transient Axial Length Change during the Accommodation Response in Young Adults". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 47 (3): 1251–4. doi:10.1167/iovs.05-1086. PMID 16505066.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. Gw, Fulk; La, Cyert (Dec 1996). "Can Bifocals Slow Myopia Progression?". Journal of the American Optometric Association. 67(12): 749–754. PMID 9286316 – via PubMed.
  8. Aller, Thomas (2002-12-13). "MYOPIA PROGRESSION WITH BIFOCAL SOFT CONTACT LENSES - A TWIN STUDY.: Poster # 142". Optometry and Vision Science. 79 (12): 179. ISSN 1538-9235.
  9. Aller, Thomas; M, Liu; Cf, Wildsoet (Apr 2016). "Myopia Control With Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial". Optometry and Vision Science Supplement. 93(4): 344–52. PMID 26784710.
  10. Goss, D A (Feb 1986). "Effect of Bifocal Lenses on the Rate of Childhood Myopia Progression". American journal of optometry and physiological optics. 63(2): 135–41. PMID 3953756.
  11. "American Optometric Association 20-20-20 rule poster" (PDF). American Optometric Association. 2020-05-30. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  12. Nall, Rachel (2020-05-30). "20-20-20 rule: How to prevent eye strain". www.medicalnewstoday.com. Retrieved 2020-05-30.