Axial elongation

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Axial elongation is an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. In young, far-sighted people, this shifts them from hyperopia towards emmetropia. In adults, this results in a higher degree of myopia, which is exactly what we're trying to avoid!

Axial elongation in a lens-induced myopia context is primarily caused by hyperopic defocus, typically close-up activity while wearing glasses that are too powerful for the distance in question.

It can also be induced by using a lot of accommodation for a large fraction of the time, excessive myopic defocus (don't reduce too much!), or form deprivation from things like diffusers.